ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line; a new technology that provides
high transmission speeds for video and voice to homes over ordinary copper telephone
Annual General Shareholder’s Assembly: This is required to be held each year,
within three months from the end of the financial year, in order to approve annual
ARPU: Average Revenue per User; A measure of the revenue generated per user
or unit. This measure allows for the analysis of companies' revenue generation and
growth at the per unit level, which can identify which products are high or low
revenue-generators. (ARPU = Total Revenue / Average number of subscribers during
BSC: Base Station Controller; provides the intelligence behind the BTSs,
the BSC handles allocation of radio channels, receives measurements from the mobile
BTS: Base Transceiver Station; contains the equipment for transmitting and
receiving of radio signals (transceivers), antennas, and equipment for encrypting
and decrypting communications with the Base Station Controller (BSC).
Capex: Capital Expenditure. Investments in tangible and intangible assets,
this type of outlay is made by companies to maintain or increase the scope of their
Carrier’s carrier: A network operator who provides network services to other
CASE (Cairo and Alexandra Stock Exchanges): Egypt's Stock Exchange is comprised
of two exchanges, Cairo and Alexandria, both of which are governed by the same board
of directors and share the same trading, clearing and settlement systems.
Cash Flow: is a term that refers to the amount of cash being received and
spent by a business during a defined period of time.
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access; is a channel access method utilized
by various wireless interface technology for mobile networks based on spectral spreading
of the radio signal and channel division by code domain.
Customer Centricity: Comprehensive customer orientation – i.e. refers to
the orientation of a company to the needs and behaviors of its customers, rather
than internal drivers. The opposite would be product centricity, where a company
focuses primarily on its products
Customer Segmentation: Division of customers into homogenous groups (segments),
representing a subgroup of people or organizations sharing one or more characteristics
that cause them to have similar product needs, and to deal with each customer segment
on a differentiated basis.
EBITDA: Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization; it
can be used to evaluate a company's profitability. EBITDA = Operating Revenues –
Expenses (excluding Interest, tax, depreciation, and amortizration)
EBITDA Margin: EBITDA/ Operating Revenues
EPS: Earnings per Share
Free Cash Flow: Free Cash Flow = Net Income + (Depreciation / Amortization)
– changes in working capital – capital expenditures. It can also be calculated by
taking operating cash flow and subtracting capital expenditures.
FTTx Fiber to the x (FTTx): is a generic term for any broadband network architecture
that uses optical fiber to replace all or part of the usual metal local loop used
for last mile telecommunications. This generic term originates as the generalization
of several configurations of fiber deployment (FTTN, FTTC, FTTB, FTTH...), all starting
by FTT but differentiated by the last letter, which is substituted by an x in the
GAAP: Generally Accepted Accounting Principle; The common set of accounting
principles, standards and procedures that companies use to compile their financial
statements. GAAP is a combination of authoritative standards (set by policy boards)
and simply the commonly accepted ways of recording and reporting accounting information.
GDP: Gross Domestic Product; GDP of a country is one of the ways of measuring
the size of its economy. GDP is defined as the total market value of all final goods
and services produced within a given country in a given period of time (usually
a calendar year). GDP = consumption + gross investment + government spending + (exports
Gearing Ratio: A general term describing a financial ratio that compares
some form of owner's equity (or capital) to borrowed funds. Gearing is a measure
of financial leverage, demonstrating the degree to which a firm's activities are
funded by owner's funds versus creditor's funds.
Goodwill: An account that can be found in the assets portion of a company's
balance sheet. Goodwill can often arise when one company is purchased by another
company. In an acquisition, the amount paid for the company over book value usually
accounts for the target firm's intangible assets.
GPRS: General Packet Radio Service; is a packet oriented Mobile Data Service
available to users of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). It allows higher
data transmission rates in GSM networks.
GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications; is the most popular standard
for mobile phones in the world.
IFRS: International Financial Reporting Standards; are new standards and
interpretations adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB),
introduced as of 1 January 2005.
Internet: is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer
networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol
IP: Internet Protocol; is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating
data across a packet-switched internetwork.
ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network; is a circuit-switched telephone
network system, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary
telephone copper wires, resulting in better voice quality than an analog phone.
ISP: Internet Service Provider; is a business or organization that provides
consumers or businesses access to the Internet and related services.
LSE: London Stock Exchange; is a stock exchange located in London, England,
United Kingdom, it is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world, with many
overseas listings as well as British companies.
MCIT: Egyptian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology
MOU: Minutes of Usage; Monthly average of outgoing and incoming traffic in
minutes per average number of users in the period
MSC: Mobile Switching Centre; is the primary service delivery node for GSM,
responsible for handling voice calls and SMS as well as other services (such as
conference calls, FAX and circuit switched data).
NTRA: Egyptian National Telecommunications Regulatory Authority
SAC: Subscriber Acquisition Cost.
SME: Small Medium Enterprise; are companies whose headcount or turnover falls
below certain limits.
Teledensity: Telecommunications penetration expressed as a percentage of
Triple play service: is a marketing term for the provisioning of two bandwidth-intensive
services, high-speed Internet access and television, and a less bandwidth-demanding
(but more latency-sensitive) service, telephone, over a single broadband connection.
Triple play focuses on a combined business model rather than solving technical issues
or a common standard.
VOIP: Voice Over Internet Protocol; is a protocol optimized for the transmission
of voice through the Internet or other packet switched networks.